FRANCE. 559 ported into the coal region itself, for in 1899 the foreign coal used in the provinces of Ford and Pas-de-Calais was one-sixth of the total consumption. In the province of Calvados in the northwest, a short distance from the French coal fields, nearly all the fuel was brought from England. It is the intention of French coke makers to increase the number of ovens so as to render imports unnecessary, but it is doubtful if this increase can affect the northwestern and southwestern works, which are close to the sea and which will find English coke cheaper, as well as better. The cost of mining in the Nord and Pas-de-Calais field is enhanced by the depth of the shafts and by the dislocations and contortions of the strata, and the coal must compete on the east with the product of Belgium and Germany and on the west with English fuel. A certain amount of iron has been made in this district, but the great drawback has been the "absence of any ore deposit, the supply having been drawn from Meurthe et Moselle, or from Spain and Sweden. For years there has been a small amount of hematite mined in the province of Calvados. I am informed that there has now been discovered the mother lode of spathic ore in large quantities and of good quality. The freight on this will be low owing to empty cars returning northward to the coal districts, and it is thus possible to establish an iron center in the District of the North. To what extent this .may develop remains to be determined. Table XXV-C gives a list of the steel works in the district. TABLE XXV-C. Steel Works in the North of France. Those marked (B) have Bessemer converters. Province. Companies. Location. Nord Societe1 anonyme des Hauts-Four- neaux, Forges et Aclfirles de De-nain et d'Anzin (B) Denaln Socie"t6 anonyme des Forges et Acl- e"rles du Nord et de 1'Bst (B) Trlth-Salnt-Leger Socl^te" anonyme des TJslnes de la Providence Hautmont Pafl-de-Calals Socie'te' anonyme dea AcleTles de France (B) Isbergues SEC. XXVd.—The G.enter: The central district embraces the provinces of Loire, Saone et Loire, Allier, Ehone, Cher, Isere and Nievre, and the works at Creusot, Montlucon, Commentry, St. Chamond, Firminy and St.